Misc. Expressions

Anacrusis: note or sequence of notes which precedes the downbeat
Grainger: Children’s March (ms. 212)

Fermata: symbol meaning to hold not longer than original value
Schuman: Chester Overture
Ticheli: Simple Gifts (movt. IV)
Tull: Sketches on a Tudor Psalm

Fugacontrapuntal composition technique
•Jacob: Music for a Festival (movt. XI: 13 after A)

Grace notesmall notes played before the main note; similar to a flam on snare
•Ticheli: Blue Shades (ms. 400)
•Arnold/Johnstone: English Dances Set 1 (movt. IV: 5 before F)

Grand pause: a rest of an indeterminate length by full ensemble

Key change:
Arnold/Paynter: Four Scottish Dances @ :37, :47, 1:04, (movt. II)

Molto: very
•Arnold/Paynter: Four Scottish Dances (movt. I: beginning) (molto marcato)
•Jacob: Music for a Festival (movt. VIII: beginning)
•Salfelder: Cathedrals (ms. 219 occurs at 5:44)
•Holst/Wright: A Moorside Suite (movt. II: ms. 27) (molto legato)

Non troppo: not too much
•Jacob: Music for a Festival (movt. X) (Tempo di menuetto non troppo lento)
•Jacob: Music for a Festival (movt. IX) (allegro con spirito ma non troppo)

Pick-up note: note or sequence of notes which precedes the downbeat
Children’s March (ms. 212)

Poco: little
•Holst: Hammersmith (L to 12 before M)

Poco a poco: little by little
•Ticheli: Blue Shades (ms. 308-319) (accel. poco a poco)
•Whitaker: October (E) (rit. e dim. poco a poco)

Sempre: always
•Vaughan Williams: English Folk Song Suite (movt. III: ms. 73) (background)
•Jacob: William Byrd Suite (movt. I: 11) (ff sempre)
•Arnold/Johnstone: English Dances Set 1 (movt. III: beginning)

Senza: without

Syncopationrhythmic effect that places emphasis on weak or unaccented part of the measure

Variationa repeated musical idea that is altered from the original
•Copland: Emblems (Amazing Grace) (pick up to 14)
•Ives/Schuman/Rhoads:  (Variations at F-1:14, G-1:52, H-2:41, I-3:27, J-3:54, L-4:46, 5:28, 5:45)